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Many environmental and social risk factors associated with disease or health may also influence early life gut microbial development.However, only a few studies have examined relationships between early life exposures and the gut microbiota.We next identified how the factors retained in the final multi-factor models associated with differences in taxonomic relative abundances with zero-inflated negative binomial models, adjusting for multiple comparisons using FDR. Among neonates, both current and exclusive breastfeeding were associated with decreased abundance of Roseburia taxa; current breastfeeding was associated with an increased abundance of Staphylococcus and Prevotella taxa, while exclusive breastfeeding was associated with an increased abundance of Streptococcus taxa.Discriminant taxa were categorized by genus for both neonates (Fig. Collectively, these results are consistent with recent findings from exclusively breastfed 4 month old Swedish infants.

If the influence of these and potentially other early life exposures on disease risk is thought to be partially explained by their impact on gut microbiome development over the first year of life, a broader understanding of such factors and their influence on bacterial community composition is critical.1), the latter representing a common dominant family in adult gut microbiomes Relative abundances are displayed at the family level for the five most abundant families, with each vertical spike representing a stacked bar plot for each individual child.The “neonates” are those subjects with specimen collection targeted for the 1-month study visit (actual age range: 0.5–4.6 months, median: 1.2 months), while the “infants” had specimens collected at the study visit targeted for 6-months (age range: 5.6–10.6 months, median: 6.6 months).Among the factors tested, 19 of 49 (39%) were significantly associated with gut microbiome composition in the neonates, while 28 of 72 (39%) were significant in the infants (Fig.3; Supplementary Table S3); 17 of the 19 factors (90%) associated with neonatal gut bacterial communities were also significant in the infants.

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